Survival preparedness. Survival kit
Natural disasters and terrorists activity create great danger for people.
Natural disasters and terrorist attacks produce not only destruction, but can turn cities in chaos, bring disorder,
mass riots. You must prepare yourself and your family for probable emergency survival actions. The following article
provides essential emergency survival tips, recommendations on survival preparations.
In order to be able to react quickly, and get through the crucial early
hours of a crisis, you should prepare a 'family survival emergency kit'.
This survival kit should contain a first-aid kit and first-aid instructions,
emergency food, water, water-purifying chemicals and a water filter,
some source of light and the other items that you may want or need in
order to survive (like duct tape to seal off the room, a radio, medicines,
hygiene necessities, baby needs, candles, matches, a tin opener...).
The survival kit should also contain an emergency decontamination kit.
You can buy ready-made survival kits or you can also take care of
preparing them yourself.Ideally, you should have enough identical survival kits, so that each member of
the family can easily access one: at home, at work or school and in the
car. At a minimum, you should have at least one kit in your 'safe room'.
Everyone in your family should know where to find the kit, what it
contains and how to use it.
Family emergency drills are an excellent way to familiarize everyone
with use of the survival kits (they can also be fun and a great
psychological help if a real crisis ever occurs).
It's important to periodically change the food and water of the kits
with fresh food and fresh water.
Your family emergency drills can also be an opportunity to
consume outdated supplies before they are replaced.
You should also check that all the other contents of the survival kit are in
good shape and functional.
Preparing emergency water supplies
There are three things a body needs to stay alive:
- Air: A person can go without air for only a few minutes.
- Water: A person can survive without water for up to three days.
- Food: A person can go without food for up to three weeks.
Let us firstly assume that the air is not contaminated and that you can
breath safely (later we will look at surviving if this is not the case).
This leaves us with water and food. Water is considerably more
important than food for our ability to survive a reasonable length of
This means that having a supply of safe water is essential to surviving
a sustained crisis situation.
When it comes to water storage, you have basically two options: 1) buy
bottles of water to store or 2) store tap water.
The first option is the most convenient. But, if you are to store enough
water to ensure your entire families survival over a sustained period,
then this will be expensive.
If it's stored properly, tap water is every bit as good as bottled water
and, of course, it costs a lot less.
Choosing the proper containers to store your water is important. There
are several options:
- Buy plastic containers which can be found in most stores.
Be very careful to make sure that they are appropriate for water
storage. If not, there is the risk that chemicals will penetrate the
container and contaminate the water.
- Disposable plastic soft drink bottles.
Start collecting your soda and water bottles and build up your
supply. Glass bottles are also safe, but are more difficult to store
and too easily broken.
- Use camping thermos jugs.
Carefully wash the container and let it completely dry before filling it.
Add some chlorine bleach, or hydrogen peroxide (about ten drops
per gallon of water). This will kill most microorganisms, without
having too much impact on the taste.
Fill the container completely to the top, to force out all air.
Store the water off the floor, in a place where it can't freeze
(frozen water will expand and break the container), away from
direct sunlight, and away from chemicals.
No matter how much water you store, in a sustained crisis, you risk running out. For this reason, it's important that you have the means to purify more water. There are some water-purification chemicals available and even simply
boiling it can be effective. However, the easiest and most reliable way
to make water safe to drink is by using a water filter.
The most common filters are ceramic filters impregnated with tiny
quantities of silver that kill harmful bacteria.
Some ceramic filters are operated by hand-pumping action. A hose
is placed into the unfiltered water, and the purified water exits via
a spout into an appropriate container.
Others rely on gravity. Two thermos jugs sit on top of each other.
The dirty water is poured in the top one and the filtered water
drips into the bottom one.
Some filters are a combination of a ceramic filter with a carbon
filter that removes dangerous chemicals.
Some filters also chemically treat the water to kill disease-causing
The recommended quantity of water to store is one gallon (4.5 liters) for person per day,
and ideally another gallon for cooking and washing.
Use your judgement when deciding how big a stock of water you can
Probably the best approach is to stock enough water to keep your family
going for a week or two and have a water filter ready in case this isn't
If you feel that you can reasonably stock enough water to keep your
family going for a longer period, then go ahead and do so. The more the
Like food, stored water doesn't keep for ever. Rotate your stored
tap water every six months. Mark the fill date on each container so
that you know when it's due to be updated. Empty the containers,
clean them as explained above, and refill them with fresh water.
Preparing emergency food supplies
The food currently stored in your refrigerator and in your pantry has a
relatively short shelf-life. This type of food will not keep you going very
long in the event of a sustained crisis.
To be properly prepared, you need to store food specially formulated for
As a minimum you should aim to store enough food to meet the needs
of your entire family for a week. Again, as with water, if you can
reasonably build up a supply to keep you going over a longer period,
then do so.
The cost of preparing a large stock of food is inevitably quite high.
Consider buying a little each week and building it up over time.
There are different types of food can be considered to include into your survival store:
- Canned Goods
Ready-to-eat soups, meats, vegetables and fruit. Stock a minimum
of 3 cans per person per day.
- Survival Food Bars
One bar will provide you with more than the normal daily
requirements for vitamins and minerals. Survival food bars are very
high in protein which will help you cope with stress. A typical bar
contains 400 kcal. They have a long storage life (often 5 years)
and can be stored without deteriorating even in very cold or very
- Meals-Ready-To-Eat (MREs)
Meals-Ready-to-Eat are army-style rations, sealed in triple-layered
foil or plastic packs. They have a long storage life (usually 5 to 7
years) if stored in a cool environment (storing MREs at normal
room temperature will cause the taste and nutritional values to
Meals-Ready-to-Eat don,t require the addition of water (except to
the drink base) and they don't need any cooking or preparation.
- Camping Pouch Products
Camping pouch products are either freeze dried or dehydrated.
They are packaged in an aluminized foil pouch and have a shelf life
of about 2 years when stored at room temperature. Many of these
products don't require any cooking and only involve adding hot (or
- Long Shelf-life Food Supplies
This is the type of food you will want to store to prepare for a long
term survival situation. This food is either freeze dried or
dehydrated, packaged in double-enameled cans and has an
expected shelf life of 10 to 15 years.
Keep your food up to date. If some products are approaching
the end of their shelf-life, then replace them with new ones.
Don,t forget that you'll need a can-opener!
Don,t forget to also store food for your pets!
Keep in mind that dehydrated and freeze dried survival food
need the addition of water.
In the event of a power failure, you will need to have a
portable generator. When choosing one keep in mind what
needs to be powered (the refrigerator, a few lights, a
radio). A portable generator is used where the device requiring
electricity is plugged directly into the generators power
outlets using an extension cord.
Generators are available fueled by gasoline, diesel, and propane.
Keep in mind that the use of a generator is a short-
term solution due to the amount of gasoline or other fuel you
can safely store.
NOTE: Generators emit deadly carbon monoxide and so should be
placed outside the house where there is sufficient
Electricity can also be generated using alternative sources like
wind energy or water energy. However, the most efficient
source of alternative energy is generated from solar power.
Solar electricity is generated when the sun shines on solar
(Photovoltaic) panels. Solar panels range in size and power
capability from a very small panel, capable of charging a
couple of AA size batteries or powering a small radio - to
larger panels that could power several essential appliances.
Another approach to using solar power is to equip yourself
with a number of essential appliances (radio, lighting, etc.)
with their own built-in solar panels.
In order not to find yourself in the dark, the very minimum you need is:
A supply of candles. Ordinary candles are fine, but long-burning
candles are recommended. Don,t forget to also store water-proof
matches and/or a few cigarette lighters.
A few flashlights (battery operated, windup or solar powered).
Emergency lighting. Ideally, your emergency lighting should be left
plugged into strategically selected outlets in your home so that it
will turn on automatically when power fails. Don,t forget to also
store spare batteries and bulbs.
If a crisis situation occurs, you need to know what is happening around
you to help you plan. The minimum you need is an AM/FM radio. A radio
capable of receiving short-wave bands is recommended.
Of course, a mobile phone can be indispensable in this kind of
situation. A CB radio can also be useful in a long-term survival
situation. A police scanner can be useful to stay abreast of the
And now look for brief survival guideline provided by Rod Purnell - additional recommendations on survival kit preparation.
Disaster Preparedness Kit
Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require
no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water. If you must heat
food, pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact and lightweight.
Include a selection of the following foods in your Disaster Survival Kit:
Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetables
Staples (salt, sugar, pepper, spices, etc.)
High energy foods
Food for infants
First Aid Kit
Assemble a first aid kit for your home and one for each car.
(20) adhesive bandages, various sizes.
5" x 9" sterile dressing.
conforming roller gauze bandage.
3 x 3 sterile gauze pads.
4 x 4 sterile gauze pads.
roll 3" cohesive bandage.
germicidal hand wipes or waterless alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
(6) antiseptic wipes.
pair large medical grade non-latex gloves.
Adhesive tape, 2" width.
Scissors (small, personal).
CPR breathing barrier, such as a face shield.
Aspirin or nonaspirin pain reliever.
Antacid (for stomach upset).
Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the Poison Control
Activated charcoal (use if advised by the Poison Control Center).
Heart and high blood pressure medication
Contact lenses and supplies
Extra eye glasses
Entertainment (games and books)
Tools and Supplies
Mess kits, or paper cups, plates, and plastic utensils
Emergency preparedness manual
Battery-operated radio and extra batteries
Flashlight and extra batteries
Cash or traveler's checks, change
Non-electric can opener, utility knife
Fire extinguisher: small canister ABC type
Matches in a waterproof container
Plastic storage containers
Shut-off wrench, to turn off household gas and water
Map of the area (for locating shelters)
Toilet paper, towelettes
Soap, liquid detergent
Personal hygiene items
Plastic garbage bags, ties (for personal sanitation uses)
Plastic bucket with tight lid
Household chlorine bleach
Clothing and Bedding
Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per
Sturdy shoes or work boots
Blankets or sleeping bags
Hat and gloves
Remember family members with special requirements, such as infants and
elderly or disabled persons
Important Family Documents
Keep these records in a waterproof, portable container:
Will, insurance policies, contracts deeds, stocks and bonds
Passports, social security cards, immunization records
Bank account numbers
Credit card account numbers and companies
Inventory of valuable household goods, important telephone numbers
Family records (birth, marriage, death certificates)
Store your kit in a convenient place known to all family members. Keep a
smaller version of the supplies kit in the trunk of your car.
Keep items in airtight plastic bags. Change your stored water supply every six
months so it stays fresh. Replace your stored food every six months. Re-think
your kit and family needs at least once a year. Replace batteries, update clothes,
Ask your physician or pharmacist about storing prescription medications.
Survival preparedness. Survival kit